Java Camps: Introduction
††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† May 15, 2011
INTERNMENT CAMPS. During 1942, all white Dutch men,
and towards the end of 1942, all white Dutch women and children, were taken
into custody by the Japanese and detained in internment camps.† Later - throughout 1943 and 1944 - Indo-Europeans
(Dutch nationals with multi-racial ancestry) were also interned. At first the
camps were scattered throughout Java. Later on, internees were concentrated
into camps in and around certain major cities: the men and older boys to Bandoeng/Tjimahi;
women and children, partly to
The order in which the camps are presented on this website is determined first by the geographic location of cities to which camps were nearest, starting with western Java and progressing eastward (along the lines of the layout on the ďAtlas van de Japanse KampenĒ), and then by alphabetical order (per name of the camps clustered in and around a particular city).
TRANSFERS/TRANSPORTS. During the internment years,
internees were relocated to other camps throughout Java, mostly by train and
in large numbers. Precise details of these relocations are not known, but
day-to-day population records at the camps afford us some insight into the
bigger picture. Transfer and transport data are provided on these webpages up
MORTALITY. Many internees died, both in the camps and during relocation. This explains, in part, why camp population figures are no more than rough estimates.† Available data indicate a mortality rate of 13%, averaged over all the internment camps.
REFERENCES. For each camp all the data sources found in Dutch archives as well as the mention in the Atlas van de Japanse Kampen in Nederlands-IndiŽ are given. The term "Personal communications" refers to telephone calls, letters, diaries, etc. of former internees (in the archives of Henk Beekhuis).
PHOTOGRAPHS AND DRAWINGS. No known photos exist from the internment period.† Immediately after the Japanese surrendered, aid agencies visited many of the camps, at which time photos were taken. Existing photos therefore reflect the situation in the camps at the end of August, 1945.
made during the internment period survive.†
They can be found at the sources listed on this website.
ABBREVIATIONS. The abbreviations used can be found on a separate webpage.